On October 24, 2021, the "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Completely, Accurately and Comprehensively Implementing the New Development Concept and Doing a Good Job in Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutralization" requires that by 2025, an economic system for green, low-carbon and circular development will be initially formed. The energy efficiency of the industry has been greatly improved. The energy consumption per unit of GDP will be reduced by 13.5% compared with 2020; the carbon dioxide emission per unit of GDP will be reduced by 18% compared with 2020.
On February 28, the National Bureau of Statistics released the 2021 National Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin. According to preliminary calculations, the total energy consumption for the whole year was 5.24 billion tons of standard coal, an increase of 5.2% over the previous year. The carbon dioxide emissions per 10,000 yuan of GDP across the country decreased by 3.8%.
A simple calculation, that is, from 2021 to 2025, the annual carbon dioxide emissions will drop by 3.6% compared with 2020. Judging from the data in 2021, it is considered that the task has been exceeded. my country's carbon neutralization work is on the right track and has achieved certain results. In the next step, relevant detailed policies will continue to be steadily advanced, and enterprises are the main body responsible for carbon emission reduction, and their central enterprises and private enterprises will be the main force to achieve carbon neutrality.
The status of central enterprises and private enterprises in the national economy
The data disclosed at the press conference of the State Council Information Office on January 19 this year shows that in 2021, central enterprises will achieve operating income of 36.3 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 19.5%, and an average two-year growth of 8.2%; 1.8 trillion yuan, an increase of 30.3% and 29.8% year-on-year respectively, and the two-year average growth rate was 14.5% and 15.3% respectively. In 2021, central enterprises will complete fixed asset investment (excluding real estate) of 3.2 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 10.1%; taxes and fees will be handed over to 2.4 trillion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 20%.
Since the reform and opening up, my country's private economy has grown from small to large and from weak to strong. At present, my country's private economy has become an indispensable force in promoting my country's development, a major field of entrepreneurship and employment, an important subject of technological innovation, and an important source of national tax revenue.
According to the "Report on Social Responsibility of Private Enterprises in China (2021)" issued by the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, by the end of 2020, the number of private enterprises in my country has exceeded 40 million, accounting for more than 90% of the total number of enterprises in my country; private fixed asset investment is 28.9 trillion yuan , accounting for 55.7% of the national total investment; private enterprises contributed 9.9 trillion yuan to the national tax revenue, accounting for 59.7% of the national tax revenue; in terms of foreign trade, the import and export volume of private enterprises was 15 trillion yuan, accounting for my country's total foreign trade value 46.6% of the total, an increase of 11.1% year-on-year.
Whether it is a central enterprise or a private enterprise, both occupy a pivotal position in my country's national economy, so the two are indispensable and important forces to achieve the dual carbon goal. Corresponding guidance has also been issued recently for both.
What is the difference between the carbon neutral policies of central enterprises and private enterprises
On December 30, 2021, the website of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission issued the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the High-quality Development of Central Enterprises and Doing a Good Job in Carbon Neutralization" (hereinafter referred to as "Central Enterprises' Dual-Carbon Opinions").
On February 16, 2022, the website of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce issued the "Opinions of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce on Guiding and Serving Private Enterprises to Achieve Carbon Neutrality" (Quan Lian Fa  No. 4) (hereinafter referred to as "private enterprises"). Corporate Two-Carbon Opinion”).
From the perspective of policy content, there are three main differences between private enterprises and central enterprises:
1. The dual-carbon opinion orientation of private enterprises focuses more on encouragement, guidance and service
Judging from the policy title, the dual-carbon opinions of central enterprises emphasize "promotion", while the dual-carbon opinions of private enterprises emphasize "guidance and service". The central enterprises' dual-carbon opinions put forward the three-stage goals and tasks for 2025, 2030 and 2060 with reference to the "Opinions on Completely, Accurately and Comprehensively Implementing the New Development Concept and Doing a Good Job in Carbon Neutralization", and pointed out that the dual-carbon work should be included in the assessment of central enterprises Evaluation System. The dual-carbon opinion of private enterprises does not mention any quantitative or qualitative goals, but only proposes specific tasks.
As a "great power", central SOEs shoulder political and more social responsibilities in addition to business goals. They should take the lead in implementing national strategic tasks and play an exemplary and leading role. Compared with state-owned enterprises, private enterprises have higher financing costs and weaker economic affordability, so it is not advisable to make excessive demands on them. It is a reasonable way to promote private enterprises to implement the dual-carbon goal by doing a good job of guidance and services, so that the majority of private enterprises can spontaneously realize the importance of green and low-carbon transformation for their long-term development.
In addition, the relationship between the Federation of Industry and Commerce and private enterprises is different from the leadership and management relationship between the SASAC and the central enterprises. The All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, also known as the China Private Chamber of Commerce, is an assistant for the government to manage and serve the non-public economy, and its functional orientation is also to a certain extent. It affects the policy orientation of the dual-carbon opinion of private enterprises.
2. Private enterprises' dual-carbon opinion governance subject is not limited to enterprises
The central enterprise dual-carbon opinion puts forward the key tasks for implementing the national dual-carbon strategy with central enterprises as the core. In addition to deploying the six tasks of accelerating the green and low-carbon transformation and development of private enterprises, the dual-carbon opinions of private enterprises also put forward requirements for the federations of industry and commerce at all levels and their affiliated chambers of commerce, pointing out that the federations of industry and commerce at all levels should strengthen guidance services and actively play the role of chambers of commerce .
Most of my country's private enterprises are small and medium-sized enterprises, with relatively lack of management mechanism, lack of keen policy insight, and weak foundation in implementing the dual carbon goals. Therefore, it is necessary for the federations of industry and commerce at all levels to act as a bridge to fully, accurately and comprehensively publicize and implement the spirit of the policy document, guide, support and serve private enterprises to speed up their transformation and upgrading, and cope with the pressure brought by the dual carbon goal.
3. The dual-carbon opinion of private enterprises focuses on individual enterprises, and the policy of central enterprises focuses on the overall situation
The central enterprises' dual-carbon opinions closely focus on the core policy of my country's dual-carbon "1+N", respectively from promoting green and low-carbon transformation and development, establishing a green and low-carbon recycling industry system, building a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, and strengthening green and low-carbon technologies. Five aspects of scientific and technological research, innovative applications, and establishment and improvement of carbon emission management mechanisms have been deployed. The Dual Carbon Opinion for Private Enterprises only proposes six tasks for private enterprises to accelerate green and low-carbon transformation and development, namely: do a good job in carbon emission measurement, determine carbon emission reduction paths, strengthen innovation support, do a good job in talent protection, and actively carry out cooperation and fulfilling social responsibilities.
From the perspective of policy content, the dual-carbon opinions of central enterprises take the overall consideration of state-owned assets as the starting point, while the starting point of the dual-carbon opinions of private enterprises focuses on individual enterprises, and the related tasks are more specific and pragmatic, and the focus is to guide enterprises to lay a good foundation for work.
At present, whether it is a central enterprise or a private enterprise, some leading enterprises have already taken the lead in carbon neutrality work, which has played a good exemplary role.
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